Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469 – 1527) was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer, who is recognized as the founder of modern political science and political ethics.
The Art of War is a treatise by the Italian Renaissance political philosopher and historian Niccolò Machiavelli. Machiavelli wrote that war must be expressly defined. He developed the philosophy of "limited warfare"—that is, when diplomacy fails, war is an extension of politics. Art of War also emphasizes the necessity of a state militia and promotes the concept of armed citizenry. He believed that all society, religion, science, and art rested on the security provided by the military.