Martin Luther (10 Nov 1483 – 18 Feb 1546) was a German friar, priest, professor of theology and a significant figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther denounced a number of teachings and practices of the Catholic Church. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be achieved through indulgence or other financial means. His translation of the Bible vernacular made it more accessible for common folk, which had a massive impact on German culture. Martin Luther died convinced of the correctness of his Reformation theology, and with his decree of excommunication by Pope Leo X effective up to date.
Due to prohibition of translating of the Bible into any language from Latin, it was inaccessible for common people. An Open Letter on Translating is a Luther’s attempt to prove the necessity of translation of Bible into other languages, so the people could read and understand it themselves. He notes that some bits of text are untranslatable, but this work must be done to allow more people to become familiar with the foundations of their faith. A very thoughtful and educative reading, regardless of your relation to Christianity.